• 日本の気候や風土が育てた、お風呂文化

    [From December Issue 2012]


    Throughout Japan’s history there have been many works of art based on the theme of bathing. This shows that the relationship between Japanese people and baths runs very deep. One example of this can be found in the classic Edo-period novel “Ukiyo Buro” (The Bathhouse of the Floating World). A manga series titled “Thermae Romae,” which tells the story of a bathhouse designer from ancient Rome who travels in time to modern day Japan and creates an uproar, was adapted into a movie.

    Some old Japanese words that exist to this day, such as “furoshiki” and “yukata,” are all related to baths. In the Edo Period, a furoshiki was a piece of fabric that was spread out on the floor while changing for a bath and was then used to wrap clothes in. The yukata was originally used as a garment that was worn while soaking in the bathtub. Once people started to take their baths in the nude, as they do today, the yukata began to be worn after baths.

    Compared to the rest of the world, Japanese people are particularly enthusiastic about bathing. One of the reasons for this is that Japan is an island country. Being surrounded by the sea, the climate in Japan is very rainy and when the temperature rises, the level of humidity also rises, making it hot and sticky. It has been said that the culture of bathing in cool or warm water was developed because people living in these conditions wanted to freshen up, even if it was just for a little while.

    On the other hand, there are many famous hot springs, or onsen, around Japan. This is because geothermal heat from volcanoes warms underground streams which bubble up out of the ground as onsen. These hot springs can be found all over Japan, and depending on the elements the water contains, its effect on the body differs from onsen to onsen. Soon spas were developed around Japan to welcome visitors who wished to bathe in the hot springs, places where travelers could stay over in hotels or ryokan.

    Another characteristic of Japanese spas is that they have a strong connection to nature. For example, a mountain onsen will heal the fatigue of skiers, a seafront onsen will have a view of a vast expanse of ocean, and onsen in a valley will have a view of the trees as they change in color from deep green to autumn brown depending on the season. Hot spring spas that develop near places of scenic beauty and historic interest contribute to bringing in tourists to the area.

    Today, “bathing in an ofuro” means to soak in a bathtub. But originally, a bath was a room in which people bathed in steam. So, in the old days, people would scrub themselves off in the steam, and then rinse with warm water. The small rooms that were designed to keep in the steam were called “muro.” This word is thought to be the origin of the word “furo.”

    In the middle of the Edo Period the number of sentou, or public baths, used by people who did not own a bath, increased. The sentou was not just a place where people washed their bodies, but also a place for socializing, a place for fun. Sentou are divided into a men’s bath, “otoko-yu,” and a women’s bath, “onna-yu.” Although some places may be different, up until kindergarten age, it is not unusual for girls to be bathing with their fathers and boys with their mothers.

    When speaking of public baths, many people think of Mt. Fuji as the mountain is commonly painted onto a mural on a wall beside the bathing area. It is said that this is because the shape of Mt. Fuji, with its wide fan-shaped base, is a lucky omen. People also like Fuji for its grandeur and rarely get tired of seeing it. But the biggest reason is probably that it is the landscape closest to everyone’s heart.

    Japanese people love onsen, ofuro and sentou and this passion has led to the creation of today’s “super sentou.” With a variety of facilities under one roof, super sentou quite literally go “beyond public baths.” Entrance fees are higher than for traditional public baths, but these leisure complexes built all over Japan allow visitors to enjoy stone saunas, games, movies, karaoke and meals, in addition to simply bathing.

    In recent years, bathing services, such as the “Hu No YU” scenic bathtub at CHUBU CENTRAIR International Airport (Aichi Prefecture), are being offered inside different businesses. Many travelers have healed their fatigue here. Hu No YU is on the fourth floor of the terminal building, so visitors can enjoy a view of airplanes and the sunset as they bathe. Stepping outside onto the deck, visitors can get a visceral experience as they hear the noise of the aircraft and feel the breeze on their skin.

    Other than the hot springs and sentou, which are facilities to be enjoyed outside the house, there are also products to enhance the bathing experience at home. For example, aroma candles that float inside the bathtub, waterproof radios, and bathing pillows. They are not items to wash the body with, but are items for enjoying and enriching bath time.

    Making bath time even more enjoyable, powders or liquids, that contain ingredients found in various onsen, are now popular. If you add these to your bathtub at home, you can enjoy an experience similar to that in an onsen, and because of this a wide variety of these are on the market. These are convenient because you can enjoy water from different onsen all over Japan every day without going to an actual hot spring.


    Bath salts /Utase-yu Photo: Rinnai Corporation


    Also there is a bathroom heater and dryer (a product that dries and warms the bathroom) with an “utase-yu” function. Utase-yu (hitting water) is a device that pours warm water over the person standing underneath producing a massaging effect. Mounting this machine on the ceiling allows you to enjoy the real utase-yu feeling in your own home.

    Although in many countries showering is a quick and simple way to wash the body, the Japanese like to submerge the entire body up to the shoulders. Soaking in a Japanese bath is also effective way to revive the body. In a Japanese bathtub you can slowly warm your body up in winter. Developed in accordance with the country’s unique climate and geography, bathing is an exceptional part of Japanese culture.

    CHUBU CENTRAIR International Airport

    Text: ITO Koichi



















    Read More
  • 人気の缶詰バーとその魅力

    [From December Issue 2012]


    Canned food bars are becoming popular. Up until now canned food has been thought of as simply a preserved food or just another ingredient, but in these bars it is the main attraction. Because it’s so practical, canned food is often used in the home, and many recipes utilizing canned food have been published. Canned food is particularly trending right now in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake, because it can be stored for long periods, making it useful thing to have around during a disaster.

    Mr. Kanso is a well-known chain of canned food bars. Launched in 2002, it now has 19 establishments all over the country – mainly in the Kansai region – and that number is expected to increase to around 50 within two years. The stylish interior and excellent atmosphere means that it’s popular with fashionable young people.

    KAWABATA Yoshihito, who was president of Mr. Kanso in the early days and is now the chairman, used to be involved in managing fine art facilities and organizing art projects. He started his canned bar when he was asked to put a vacant lot to good use by opening up an eatery there. He was inspired by the excellent designs of some can labels and the delicious taste of some canned foods. An art school graduate, he drew on his artistic talent and sensibilities to give canned food an image change. The cans lining the shelves make for an eye-catching décor.

    His bars stock between 250 to 300 types of canned food. The price is indicated by a colored sticker on the bottom of a can and you’re free to choose a can that appeals to you from the shelves. Rather than being served on a plate, the food is served straight from the can. The most popular can is the bar’s own brand product, “Dashimaki-kan.” It’s popular because people are amazed that a fluffy omelet can come out of a can and even taste like it was made by a professional. Rare canned foods, like sea lion yamatoni (cooked with sugar, soy sauce and ginger), seal curry and grasshopper, are also stocked.

    KAWABATA Michio, who’s in charge of publicity, says, “I think the charm of canned foods lies in the excitement you feel as you open it yourself and in the fact that you get to eat something delicious immediately. We have some own-brand products, too. To satisfy our customers, I’d like to continue offering new canned foods that no one has heard of.”

    Popular with railway fans, “Kiha” in Chuo Ward, Tokyo, is a bar that serves kappu zake (sake served in a glass jar) and canned food. Its walls are decorated with items such as model railways and train maps. Seats are modeled on those found in train carriages, so you feel just as if you were travelling in a train. At Kiha you can enjoy the sensation of setting off on a journey and the bar is popular with people who are too busy to travel themselves.

    The price of a can starts from 300 yen and popular staples are roast chicken and mackerel. There are also some cooked dishes on the menu too, such as the “corn butter” made with a can of sweet corn and the “oiled sardine cheese yaki,” which is sardines in oil from a can grilled with cheese. FUTAKAMI Noboru, the owner, says, “Thanks to improvements in food processing technology and in the quality of ingredients, there are more and more really good canned foods out there these days.”

    Businessman, TANAKA Kosuke, often stops by canned food bars after work. He says, “Canned food bars are good in that everyone can choose whatever he wants whether he’s by himself, or with friends.”

    Kiha: a bar offering sake and canned foods

    Text: MUKAI Natsuko











    カップ酒・缶詰バー キハ


    Read More
  • 日本の天皇の存在とその歴史

    [From December Issue 2012]


    In Japan, December 23 is the Emperor’s Birthday and a national holiday. On this day citizens can visit the Emperor at the Imperial Palace to give him their good wishes. The Emperor and royal family greet them from their balcony. The same ceremony takes place on January 2 to celebrate the New Year. At present the Emperor is well-liked by citizens in his symbolic role as the representative of the Japanese people.

    In Japan in addition to the Western calendar, there is a unique way of numbering years that reflects the period of the Emperor’s reign. This year is “Heisei 24.” This means that it has been 24 years since the current Emperor’s accession to the throne. Before “Heisei” was “Showa.” Before that was “Taisho” and the even further back was “Meiji.” Japan’s modernization started with the Meiji period, when the Emperor held the highest rank in the nation, with all citizens as his subjects.

    In the Showa era Japan had set its sights on becoming a military power and the Emperor was worshipped by the people as a god. After the Second World War, except for attending important national ceremonies and extending royal diplomacy, Emperors have not been involved in politics. However, the Emperor is still considered to be special and sacred. The media uses respectful language when they write articles about the Emperor. It is taboo to criticize the Emperor.

    This year marks the 1300th year since the “Kojiki” (the Record of Ancient Matters), which is believed to be the Japan’s oldest book, was created. The origins of Japan and its emperors, including Emperor Jinmu, who was regarded as Japan’s first Emperor, is described in the Kojiki. In the Kojiki the emperor is depicted as being the descendent of the gods, but many scholars believe that this was written by the rulers of that time to legitimize their own government, thus making it doubtful whether early emperors actually existed or not. However, it has been proved that the Emperor’s family bloodline can be traced back for more than 1500 years, giving it the longest lineage in the world.

    The next Emperor in line is the Crown Prince (the Emperor’s eldest son), but there has been some debate about who comes after that. The Crown Prince’s only child is a girl. His younger brother, Prince Akishinonomiya, has a boy. Japanese Emperors have traditionally been male, though some female Emperors existed in the distant past. Some people say that women should be allowed to become Emperor, but others feel strongly that only men should be Emperors.

    Emperors at Turning Points in Japanese History

    The 16th Emperor Nintoku

    In Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, is the Daisen Burial Mound, one of the world’s largest tombs. This is said to be the mausoleum of fourth century Emperor Nintoku, who is known for improving the quality of life of his citizens with such policies as instigating a three year tax free period. However, it is a mystery why such huge tombs suddenly appeared in the ancient era.

    The 77th Emperor Goshirakawa

    In the 12th century Goshirakawa, with the support of the Heike and Genji samurai clans, was victorious in his battle to succeed as Emperor. By skillfully manipulating these two rising samurai powers, he struggled to maintain his rule as Emperor. This, however, was one of the biggest factors that lead to a feudal government replacing the aristocracy.

    The 122nd Emperor Meiji

    In the latter half of the 19th century, a revolution, to restore the Emperor to power in place of the shogun government, took place. As the first Emperor of the new government, Meiji became a symbol of Japan’s modernization. He was enshrined at Meiji Shrine, a sightseeing spot near Harajuku Station in Tokyo.









    第16代 仁徳天皇


    第77代 後白河天皇


    第122代 明治天皇


    Read More
  • 東京駅リニューアル――次の100年に向けて

    [From December Issue 2012]


    On October 1 this year, Tokyo Station reopened after renovation work. In 1914, a train line was built to connect Shimbashi Station, the gateway to Western Japan, with Ueno Station, the gateway to Eastern Japan, with a central station established at the halfway point between them. That was the beginning of the Tokyo Station story. It was decided it would be situated in front of the Imperial Palace. Reflecting the special importance of this station to the country, the station was named Tokyo Station; taking the same name as the capital of Japan.

    Tokyo Station is a huge terminal located in the center of Japan. According to a survey, conducted in 2011 by East Japan Railway Company, on the number of passengers passing through ticket gates, Shinjuku is the busiest of all the stations run by JR East Japan, followed by Ikebukuro and Shibuya. Although it has the most platforms in Japan and serves as the terminal of many lines, Tokyo Station is the fifth busiest. That’s because many people transfer to other lines at this station instead of exiting through a ticket gate.

    For the past five years there have been a number of development projects being carried out in the vicinity of Tokyo Station, such as the renovation of the station house and the construction of buildings nearby. The tagline for this project has been: “Tokyo Station will become a town.” The area around Tokyo Station was named “Tokyo Station City.” Now, Tokyo Station is no longer just a place to catch a train, but has been reincarnated as an attractive place that anybody would go out of their way to visit.

    Tokyo Station building has been designated as an important national cultural property. It has been fitted with a quake absorbing system that uses the latest architectural techniques to help it withstand major earthquakes. Particularly noticeable are the two round roofs or domes, located on the north and south sides of the station building. Due to fire damage during the war, the building had been limited to being a two-story structure up until recently, but it has now been restored to its original three-story layout. Inside the domes are elaborate carvings of flowers and animals.


    Inside one of the domes / Tokyo Station Gallery


    Located inside the main station building, Tokyo Station Gallery was opened in 1988 with the aim of making the station a cultural destination, not simply a place which people pass through. Now the station has been renovated as a three-story structure, it has three times as much floor space as before. On the second floor gallery, you can touch the building’s iconic red brick walls. To celebrate the completion of the renovation work, an exhibition is being held titled, “Nine Artworks that tell a Story about Tokyo Station and the Railroads, to be Enjoyed While Waiting for the First Train.”

    Tokyo Station Hotel, adjacent to the station building, reopened on October 3. Its new “Dome Side” rooms are designed so that guests can look down at the ticket gates below the dome. Opened in 1915, Tokyo Station Hotel is one of Japan’s most famous classic hotels and has been patronized by writers such as KAWABATA Yasunari, and other celebrities. The hotel houses a beauty salon and a small department store that sells traditional crafts.

    The JR East Travel Service Center, a service center for foreign tourists, has been set up in the station building in the Marunouchi North Exit Dome. They can handle inquiries in four languages: Japanese, English, Chinese and Korean. At the center, there is a tourist information center, a travel agency, a currency exchange counter, and an ATM. At the travel agency, they provide a number of convenient services for foreign tourists: you can pick up a Japan Rail Pass or pick up and buy a JR East Pass; you can also buy tickets for special English-language trips, tickets for JR trains, and Suica (an IC card).


    JR EAST Travel Service Center / Tokyo Okashi Land


    At Tokyo Station Ichiban-gai (First Avenue Tokyo Station), right outside the Yaesu Underground Central Ticket Gate, there is a wide variety of shops. Tokyo Character Street and Tokyo Okashi (Snack) Land are popular spots that entertain children and adults alike. Offering freshly baked snacks and chocolates, Tokyo Okashi Land is a collection of “antenna shops” (showroom stores) run by three major confectionary makers in Japan.

    Tokyo Ramen Street brings together eight of Tokyo’s most famous ramen shops. Among these, Rokurinsha Tokyo’s tsuke-men, is so famous that some people travel long distances just to try it. Hirugao’s shio (salt) ramen is especially popular with women. You can savor the taste of these popular ramen here without having to trek all over the city.

    At Tokyo Station you can have a good time without even having to go through the ticket gate. The “ekinaka” (within the station) area has more facilities than any other station in Japan. At Gransta, about 50 shops sell special dishes and packed lunch boxes from famous restaurants, as well as sweets, sake and other goods. Many limited edition products on sale here are difficult to get hold of elsewhere, making it a popular place for tourists to pick up souvenirs of Tokyo.

    Using ingredients delivered fresh from all over Japan, at Gransta Dining you can enjoy eating at popular restaurants that serve not just Japanese cuisine, but also Chinese and Italian food. Every single shop has a good reputation for its breakfast menus. On Central Street around 150 types of ekiben (boxed lunches sold at train stations) are on sale. A popular feature of these stores is how you’re able to watch from outside as these meals are prepared.

    In the evening, the entire building of Tokyo Station is magically lit up in the dark with LED spotlights. The color of the walls and the design of the station building have been reproduced so that it exactly resembles the way it appeared when it was first built. The exact same scene of 100 years ago has been recreated before your very eyes. The traditions and culture that have continued up until this day will be passed on throughout the next 100 years.

    East Japan Railway Comapany
    Tokyo Station City
    Tokyo Station Development Co., Ltd.

    Text: MUKAI Natsuko









    また、外国人旅行者向けのサービスセンター「JR EAST Travel Service Center」が駅舎内、丸の内北口ドーム内に新設されました。ここでは日本語、英語、中国語、韓国語の4ヵ国語での対応が可能です。観光案内所や旅行カウンター、外貨両替所およびATMが設置されています。旅行カウンターではJAPAN RAIL PASSの引き換え、JR EAST PASSの引き換えと販売、英語版特別企画乗車券やJR券、Suica(ICカード)の販売など、外国人旅行者には便利なサービスが充実しています。




    またGRANSTA DININGでは日本各地から届けられる新鮮な食材を使った日本食はもちろん、中華、イタリアンなどの人気レストランでの食事が楽しめます。どの店も朝食メニューが好評です。セントラルストリートでは約150種類の駅弁が販売されています。調理している様子を外から見ることができるのも人気です。




    Read More
  • 日本の和紙

    [From December Issue 2012]


    The tradition of Japanese Paper or washi (wa meaning Japanese and shi meaning paper) originated in China and was introduced to Japan through Buddhism. Paper making began during the Nara Period (8th century) and continued to develop gradually. But it is mostly during the Edo period (17 ~ 19th century) that Japanese paper became really popular, when it began to be sold all over Japan and new types of washi appeared. The production of paper became a part-time job during winter in farming villages.

    Washi is the general term used to describe handmade paper made with traditional Japanese techniques. One of the biggest differences in the production processes, compared to normal wood pulp paper, is that the process requires little or no chemicals. Most Japanese paper is made in winter when pure, cold running water, essential to the process, is abundantly available. The cold water inhibits the growth of bacteria that might spoil the paper. The result is a paper that usually is sturdier and more durable than normal paper.

    Washi is mostly made from the bark of gampi, mitsumata or kozo (paper mulberry) trees. Washi made from bamboo, hemp, rice, or wheat can also be found, but in smaller amounts and is mostly produced for specialized purposes.

    The kozo tree is indigenous to the south of Japan. As it is known for producing strong fibers, it has also been used to create textiles. Mitsumata is a type of bush native to China that has been used for papermaking in Japan since the 17th century. With its ivory color and fine surface it is especially suitable for making calligraphy paper, but was also used to make paper money during the Meiji period (19 ~ 20th century). The gampi tree is found in the mountains of Japan. Japanese paper made of gampi fibers is very rare and very expensive. Mainly used for books and artisanal crafts, it has a natural reddish cream color and a smooth, shiny surface.

    At the beginning of the production process branches are pruned, steamed, dried and stripped of their bark. The fibers are then boiled in water to remove starch, fat and tannin. Then it is rinsed in cold running water to remove any impurities. The remaining non-fibrous material is removed by hand. Wet balls of fiber are scooped onto a screen and shaken to distribute the fibers evenly. After drying the fibers, the washi is ready and it only needs to be sorted and cut.

    Echizen (present day eastern side of Fukui Prefecture) paper dates back to the 15th century and is named after the region that produces it. Echizen is one of the most famous regions for paper production and its papermaking tradition was recognized as a traditional Japanese craft in 1976. Often used to create Japanese style lanterns, umbrellas or shoji screens, Mino (present day Gifu Prefecture) paper was first mentioned in the 14th century and is famous for its durability.

    Ieda Paper Craft was established in 1889 in Mino City, Gifu Prefecture and now owned by the fourth generation of the IEDA family. They become well known for their “1/100” brand that combines paper craft with art. One of their most successful products is their paper snowflakes. The blurry borders of the Japanese paper are reminiscent of the structure of snow crystals, giving them a beautiful and realistic look. They are used as window decorations and, rather than having to use glue, will adhere to glass with just water. They can be removed and reused many times. Easy to use, ecological and safe for children, these paper snowflakes are the perfect decoration for the winter season.


    Text: Nicolas SOERGEL












    Read More
  • 子ども達を笑顔にするエンターテイナー

    [From December Issue 2012]


    Guy TOTARO, The Smile Ambassadors

    After nearly 25 years in the entertainment business, Gaetano “Guy” TOTARO is a performing “jack of all trades.” A native of California, Guy graduated from San Francisco State University in 1989 with a BA in Acting and Theatre Arts. He continued his training with the award-winning San Francisco Mime Troupe and at the world famous Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey’s Clown College.

    Then, in 1993, work opportunities brought Guy to Japan, where he spent five years building a reputation as one of the most versatile foreign tarento in Tokyo, performing as a variety entertainer, actor, narrator and model. After another seven years back in the States doing similar work, Guy was once again drawn to Japan – this time settling down in Tokyo to start a family.

    “Since coming back to Japan in 2005, I’m very proud to have been Suntory’s ‘Mr. CC Lemon’ and have been fortunate to have had many other high-profile roles in commercials, educational and music videos, and as a voice actor,” Guy says. He is also kept busy with his educational workshops, and provides creative consulting for entertainers and theme parks. Arguably Guy’s most important role, however, came after the Great East Earthquakes in March 2011.

    “In April 2011 I traveled north for the first of what would turn out to be many relief tours. I went to a shelter, a day care center, a church and a junior high school in Iwate Prefecture. I found kids big and small who hadn’t laughed or even smiled in over a month,” Guy says. “It was clear that my silly shows and circus workshops were an effective tool to combat PTSD issues and it was even clearer that I needed to return and continue.”

    Shortly after getting back to Tokyo, Guy was contacted by the Tyler Foundation, an NPO that provides support for pediatric cancer patients and their families, with whom he had collaborated before.

    “Together we created the ‘Shine On! Smile Ambassador Program.’ The Tyler Foundation provided the logistical and financial support and I created and facilitated the program content,” Guy explains. “From April 2011 to the end of March 2012, we visited more than 80 unique locations and I interacted with almost 8,000 kids. Without their help I could have never reached as many people as I did in that first year.”

    That collaboration ended this past March, but Guy is now working to register Niko Niko Taishi (The Smile Ambassadors) as a new NPO. Guy uses the plural Ambassadors because he believes we can all work together to make a big impact on the people of Tohoku and beyond.

    “The Smile Ambassadors’ goals are to continue to offer PTSD relief to the kids, teachers and communities we’ve reached previously; to train teachers, caregivers and parents how to recognize PTSD and facilitate care; to be ready to mobilize and act in the case of any future traumatic events; and to help other populations in need at orphanages, hospitals and women’s shelters,” Guy says.

    The Smile Ambassadors

    Text: Thomas TYNAN



    ニコニコ大使 ガイタノ・トタロさん










    文: トマス・タイナン

    Read More
  • ある殺人事件を巡り食い違う目撃者たちの証言

    [From December Issue 2012]


    Rashomon (Directed by KUROSAWA Akira)

    In 1950 “Yabu no Naka,” a novella by AKUTAGAWA Ryunosuke, was adapted into a black and white film. The film was directed by KUROSAWA Akira and starred MIFUNE Toshiro. In 1951 the following year it won the Golden Lion Prize at the Venice International Film Festival and went on to win an Honorary Academy Award in 1952, garnering international recognition for Kurosawa and Japanese cinema in general.

    The story is set in the Heian era (8~12th century). A woodcutter and a traveling priest take shelter from the rain under the dilapidated Rashomon Gate. A low-ranking man also taking shelter from the rain joins them and they tell him about a murder case they were involved in as witnesses.

    The woodcutter says he discovered the corpse of a samurai while plowing his way through undergrowth in the mountains to gather firewood and reported it to the local authorities. The priest in turn recounts how he saw the samurai and his wife just before the murder. The two men then start to relate the deliberations that took place between the authorities at the court.

    First of all, Tajomaru, a thief who had been arrested as the killer, confessed that he had approached the couple with the intention of raping the wife. He tied the samurai to a tree and though he didn’t intend to, ended up killing the samurai because the wife had said she would stay with the last man left alive. He recalled that she then disappeared, however, without his realizing it.

    Meanwhile the samurai’s wife was found and her account differed to Tajomaru’s. She said he raped her, but fled without killing her husband. She had asked her husband to kill her because she had been raped by a stranger before his eyes, but she then fainted and claimed that she found her husband dead when she came to.

    Finally, the spirit of the samurai “testifies” by possessing the body of a shrine maiden, who acts as a medium. According to the samurai, his wife changed her mind after the rape and asked Tajomaru to kill him. Tajomaru was enraged by this request and the wife ran away, stunned. Eventually Tajomaru left the samurai, and the latter killed himself with a dagger.

    After hearing the differing testimonies from numerous points of view, the low-ranking man comes to the conclusion that it’s impossible to have confidence in anybody’s testimony. While the priest maintains human beings are all fundamentally good, the low-ranking man insists that they’ll do evil things in order to survive. Then the woodcutter, who discovered the body, reluctantly admits that he actually witnessed the whole thing.

    The storytelling technique employed in this film, in which the same event is seen from the point of view of several different characters, leaving the audience in a state of confusion as to what really occurred, later influenced American films. A remake starring Paul NEWMAN titled “The Outrage,” was set in Mexico in 1964.












    Read More