How is a Living National Treasure Selected?

Behind the Scenes |人間国宝はどのように認定されるのか

How is a Living National Treasure Selected?

Foreign Student (hereinafter, FS): Including the Nobel Prize, there are several global awards that recognize individual’s outstanding achievements. Are there any similar prizes in Japan? Teacher (hereinafter, T): There are many different prizes and among these the most highly regarded are the recipients of the Order of Cultural Merit. This award is given to those who have greatly contributed to cultural development and progress in the fields of scientific technology or art. The People’s Honor Award is also a prestigious prize that is given to those who have achieved outstanding results, making them loved by the people for their positive contribution to society. The majority of recipients are athletes who’ve set remarkable records or people who have made a long-standing contribution to the world of culture and entertainment. FS: I’ve heard the word “living national treasure.” How is this different from other awards? T: This is the common term, but the formal name is the holder of an Important Intangible Cultural Asset. It is divided into the fields of entertainment, and arts and crafts, and the number of holders is over 100. The field of entertainment includes kabuki , bunraku , music, noh , dance and other performance arts. The field of arts and crafts includes (fabric) dying, ceramics, lacquer, metalwork, and dolls. FS: How is it different from the Order of Culture? The Order of Culture is given to those who have made outstanding achievements, while Living National Treasures are recognized for having mastered a “skill.” Living National Treasures are only designated as being people with these skills who were born and raised in Japan. FS: What kind of people are chosen? T: Well, for example, in kabuki , a traditional form of Japanese theatre, only men are able to perform. Female roles are also performed by men. BANDO Tamasaburo is known for being a great actor who specializes in female roles. Though Tamasaburo is taller than the average Japanese women, it is said that his gestures are more feminine than a woman’s, and for this he is highly regarded. FS: Is the living national treasure system unique to Japan? T: That’s right. Since this is a unique system, people from foreign countries, most particularly European countries, come to Japan to observe it in practice. In 1994, France emulated Japan by establishing their own living national treasure organization. FS: Are there any problems with the living national treasure system? T: The Japanese government grants a yearly subsidy of two million yen to holders, but some people say it is not enough to maintain these skills and to cover the necessary expenses to train a successor. Another problem is that it is not easy to train a successor. In addition, questions have been raised regarding the methods for assessing living national treasures. Some say that in the future the living national treasure system should take into account global intangible cultural heritage.

留学生りゅうがくせい
ryuugakusei
foreign Student
以後いごりゅう):
(igo, ryuu):
hereinafter FS
ノーベル賞のーべるしょう
no-beru shou wo
the Nobel Prize
はじめ、
hajime,
including
個人こじん
kojinn no
individual’s outstanding
偉大いだい
idaina
achievements
功績こうせきをたたえる
kouseki wo tataeru
(that) recognize
世界的せかいてきしょう
sekaitekina shou ga
global awards
いくつか
ikutuka
several
ありますが、
ari masu ga,
there are
日本にほん
nihonn
Japan
にも
nimo
in
たようなしょう
nita youna shou ha
(any) similar prizes
ありますか。
ari masu ka.
are there?
先生せんせい以後いごせん):
sennsei (igo, senn):
teacher hereinafter T
いろいろなしょう
iroirona shou ga
many different prizes
あります
ari masu
there are
が、
ga,
and
なかでも
naka demo
among these
文化ぶんか勲章くんしょう
bunnkakunnshou ha
(the recipients of ) the Order of Cultural Merit
たいへんな名誉めいよ
taihenna meiyo
the most highly regarded
とされます。
to sare masu.
are
科学かがく技術ぎじゅつ
kagakugijutsu
scientific technology
ya
or
芸術げいじゅつ
gijutsu
art
no
of
分野ぶんや
bunnya
(the) fields
で、
de,
in
文化ぶんか
bunnka no
cultural
発展はってん
hattenn
development
ya
and
向上こうじょう
koujou ni
progress
めざましい
mezamashii
greatly
功績こうせきのある
kouseki no aru
(who) have contributed to
ひと
hito ni
those
あたえられます。
ataerare masu.
(this award) is given to
国民こくみん
kokumin
the people
ni
by
敬愛けいあいされ、
keiai sare,
making them loved
社会しゃかいあかるい希望きぼうあたえる
shakai ni akarui kibou wo ataeru
(their) positive contribution to society
ことに
koto ni
for
顕著けんちょ功績こうせきがあった
kennchona kouseki ga atta
(who) have achieved outstanding results
ひと
hito
those
ni
to
あたえられる
atae rareru
that is given
国民こくみん栄誉賞えいよしょう
kokuminnneiyoshou
(The) People’s Honor Award
mo
also
名誉めいよしょう
meiyona shou
(a) prestigious prize
です。
desu.
is
受賞者じゅしょうしゃ
jushou sha
recipients
no
of
おおくは、
ooku ha,
the majority
大記録だいきろく
daikiroku wo
remarkable records
つくった
tsukutta
(who)’ve set
スポーツすぽーつ選手せんしゅ
supo-tsu sennshu
athletes
ya
or
ながあいだ
nagai aida
long-standing
文化ぶんか
bunnka
culture
ya
and
芸能げいのう
geinou
entertainment
no
of
分野ぶんや
bunnya
(the) world
de
to
活躍かつやくした
katsuyaku shita
(who) have made a contribution
ひとたち
hito tachi
people
です。
desu.
are
りゅう
ryuu:
FS
人間にんげん国宝こくほう」という
“ninngenn kokuhou” to iu
living national treasure
言葉ことば
kotoba wo
(the) word
いたことがあります。
kiita koto ga ari masu.
I’ve heard
ほかしょう
hoka no shou to
other awards
どう
dou
how
ちがうの
chigau no
different from
ですか。
desu ka.
is (this) ?
せん
senn:
T
それは
sore ha
this
通称つうしょう
tsuushou
(the) common term
で、
de,
is but
正式せいしき名称めいしょう
seishikimeishou ha
(the) formal name
重要じゅうよう無形むけい文化財ぶんかざい保持者ほじしゃ
juuyoumukei bunnkazai hojisha
the holder of an Important Intangible Cultural Asset
です。
desu.
is
芸能げいのうけい
geinou kei
(the) fields of entertainment
to
and
工芸こうげい技術系ぎじゅつけい
kougeigijutsu kei ni
arts and crafts [field]
けられ、
wakerare,
it is divided into and
認定者にんていしゃ
ninnteisha ha
(the number of ) holders
100人ひゃくにん
hyaku ninn
hundred [people]
以上いじょう
ijou
over
います。
i masu.
is
芸能げいのうけい
geinou kei ha
(the) field of entertainmen
歌舞伎かぶき
kabuki,
kabuki
文楽ぶんらく
bunnraku,
bunraku
音楽おんがく
onngaku,
music
能楽のうがく
nougaku,
noh
舞踊ぶよう
buyou,
dance and
演芸えんげい
enngei
other performance arts
などです。
nado desu.
includes
工芸こうげい技術系ぎじゅつけいには
kougeigijutsu kei niha
(the) field of arts and crafts
染織せんしょく
sennshoku,
(fabric) dying
陶芸とうげい
tougei,
ceramics
漆芸しつげい
shitsugei,
lacquer
金工きんこう
kinnkou,
metalwork
人形にんぎょう
ninngyou
(and) dolls
などがふくまれます。
nado ga fukumare masu.
includes
りゅう
ryuu:
FS
文化ぶんか勲章くんしょう
bunnkakunnshou
the Order of Culture
との
tono
from
ちがいいは
chigai ha
different
なんですか。
nann desu ka.
how is it?
せん
senn:
T
文化ぶんか勲章くんしょう
bunnkakunnshou ha
the Order of Culture
おおきな功績こうせきのこした
ookina kouseki wo nokoshita
(who) have made outstanding achievements
ひと
“hito”
those
ni
to
あたえられます
ataerare masu
is given
が、
ga,
while
人間にんげん国宝こくほう
ninngenkokuhou ha
Living National Treasures
高度こうど
koudona
[high]
「わざ」の
“waza” no
(a) skill
ぬし
mochinushi wo
for having mastered
認定にんていしています。
ninntei shite i masu.
are recognized
人間にんげん国宝こくほうは、
ninngennkokuhou ha,
living National Treasures
日本にほん
nihonn
Japan
de
in
まれ、
umare,
(who) were born
はぐくまれた
hagukumareta
(and) raised
わざ
waza
(these) skills
のみが
nomi ga
only with
対象たいしょうとなります。
taishou to nari masu.
are designated (as being people)
りゅう
ryuu:
FS
どんなひと
donnna hito ga
what kind of people
認定にんていされるのですか。
ninntei sareru no desu ka.
are chosen?
せん
senn:
T
そうですね。
sou desu ne.
well
たとえば
tatoeba
for example
日本にほん伝統でんとう芸能げいのう
nihonn no denntou geinou no
(a) traditional form of Japanese theatre
歌舞伎かぶき
kabuki
kabuki
ha
in
男性だんせい
dannsei
men
だけで
dake de
only
えんじられます。
ennji rare masu.
are able to perform
女性じょせいやく
josei no yaku
female roles
mo
also
男性だんせい
dannsei
men
によって
ni yotte
by
えんじられます。
ennji rare masu.
are performed
坂東ばんどう玉三郎たまさぶろうさんは、
banndou tamasaburou sann ha,
Bando Tamasaburo [Mr.]
女方おんながた
onnnagata
female roles
no
in
名優めいゆう
meiyuu
(a) great actor (who specializes)
として
to shite
for being
られています。
shirarete i masu
is known
玉三郎たまさぶろうさんは
tamasaburou sann ha
Tamasaburo [Mr.]
平均的へいきんてき
heikinntekina
(the) average
日本人にほんじん女性じょせい
nihonnjinjosei
Japanese women
より
yori
than
大柄おおがら
oogara
taller
です
desu
is
が、
ga,
though
そのしぐさは
sono shigusa ha
his<its> gestures
女性じょせい
josei
(a) woman’s
以上いじょう
ijou ni
more than
しなやか
shinayaka
are feminine
to
that
いわれ、
iware,
it is said and
たか評価ひょうかされています。
takaku hyouka sarete i masu.
(for this he) is highly regarded
りゅう
ryuu:
FS
人間にんげん国宝こくほう制度せいど
ninngennkokuhouseido ha
(the) living national treasure system
日本にほん独自どくじのものです
nihonn dokuji no mono desu
unique to Japan
か。
ka.
is?
せん
senn:
T
そうです。
sou desu.
that’s right
独創的どくそうてき制度せいど
dokusoutekina seido
(a) unique system
である
de aru
(this) is
ため、
tame,
since
ヨーロッパよーろっぱ
yo-roppa wo
European countries
はじめ、
hajime,
most particularly
視察しさつのために
shisatsu no tame ni
to observe (it) in practice
来日らいにちする
rainichi suru
come to Japan
くに
kuni mo
(people from foreign) countries
あります。
ari masu.
[there are]
1994年せんきゅうひゃくきゅうじゅうよねん
sennkyuuhyakukyuujuuyo nenn,
(in) nineteen ninety-four [year]
フランスふらんす
furansu ha
France
日本にほん
nihonn
Japan
見習みなら
ni minarai
emulated
人間にんげん国宝こくほう制度せいど
ninngennkokuhouseido wo
(their) own living national treasure organization
創設そうせつしました。
sousetsu shi mashita.
by establishing
りゅう
ryuu:
FS
人間にんげん国宝こくほう制度せいど
ninngennkokuhouseido
(the) living national treasure system
ni
with
問題点もんだいてん
monndaitenn ha
(any) problems
ないのですか。
nai no desu ka.
are there?
せん
senn:
T
政府せいふ
seifu ha
(the) Japanese government
保持者ほじしゃ
hojisha
holders
には、
niha,
to
年間ねんかん
nennkann
yearly
200万円にひゃくまんえん
nihyaku mann enn
two million yen
no
of
助成金じょせいきん
joseikinn wo
(a) subsidy
交付こうふします
koufu shi masu
grants
が、
ga,
but
わざの
waza no
(these) skills
維持いじ
iji
to maintain
ya
and
継承者けいしょうしゃ
keishousha wo
(a) successor
そだてる
sodateru
to train
費用ひようとしては
hiyou toshite ha
to cover (the) necessary expenses
十分じゅうぶんではない
juubunn deha nai
(it) is not enough
とのこえもあります。
tono koe mo ari masu.
some people say <voice>
継承者けいしょうしゃ
keishousha wo
(a) successor
そだてるのは
sodateru noha
to train
容易よういではない
youi deha nai
(it) is not easy
という
to iu
that
問題もんだい
monndai mo
another problem
あります。
ari masu.
is
また、
mata,
in addition
人間にんげん国宝こくほう
ninngennkokuhou wo
living national treasures
見極みきわめる検証けんしょう方法ほうほう
mikiwameru kennshouhouhou
(the) methods for assessing
mo
regarding
われています。
towarete i masu.
questions have been raised
将来しょうらい
shourai
in the future
人間にんげん国宝こくほう制度せいど
ninngennkokuhouseido wo
(the) living national treasure system
世界せかい無形むけい文化遺産ぶんかいさん
sekaimukeibunnkaisann
global intangible cultural heritage
にもれるべき
nimo toriireru beki
should take into account
という
to iu
that
こえもあります。
koe mo ari masu.
some say <voice>

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